تأثير التنشئة الاجتماعية والسياسية في الاتجاه نحو التطرف

  • م.د.عماد رزيك عمر جامعة الانبار – كلية القانون والعلوم السياسية
الكلمات المفتاحية: التنشئة السياسية، التطرف، مجتمع

الملخص

يتناول البحث تأثير طبيعة التنشئة الاجتماعية والسياسية في التوجه نحو التطرف من خلال تتبع المؤسسات والمعتقدات التي يمر بها الفرد خلال دورة حياته وقد تم التطرق لدور العائلة والجماعة والمدرسة والتعليم والدين في اكتساب نوازع التطرف سواء بوجه علني أم بوجه مستتر، مركزين على السياقات الاجتماعية والاقتصادية التي تعد بيئة حاضنة للتطرف، يدعمها شكل الجماعة والمعتقدات التي تتبناها سواء المباشرة من خلال الدين أو غير مباشر من خلال طبيعة التعليم، اعتمدت هذه الدراسة  على الادبيات السياسية التي تناولت هذا الموضوع والتي ركزت على ظاهرة التطرف التي اجتاحت العالم مؤخراً

المراجع

( ) حميد فاضل، التطرف الضد النوعي للاعتدال ،مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم القانونية والسياسية ,” المجلد 8، عدد خاص ،2018 ،ص3.
( ) Peter Coleman and Andrea Bartoli ,( 2003 ) “Addressing Extremism,” International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution ,Columbia University New York , p2.

( )Sikkens ,Elga, ,et.al.,( 2017) Influence on Radicalization and De-radicalization according to the lived experiences of former extremists and their families , Journal for deradicalization ,12,p194

( ) علي عباس مراد،التطرف صناعة انسانية ، مجلة قضايا سياسية،جامعة النهرين ، العدد 37-38،2014 ، ص282.
( ) Paul McLaughlin,( 2012),Radicalism A Philosophical Study,Palgrave Macmillan ,p7.
( ) Jamie Bartlett, et. al.,( 2010), The Edge of Violence ,Demos,London, p 79.
( ) Peter Coleman and Andrea ,op. cit., p2..
( ) Ibide.
( ) Jan-Willem van Prooijen and André P. M. Krouwel,( 2019), Psychological Features of Extreme Political Ideologies, Current Directions in Psychological Science, (Sage Publications Inc). no. 2, Vol. 28, ,p163.
( ) Peter Coleman and Andrea Bartoli ,op. cit.,,p2.

( ) Davies,James ,( Sep.,1965 ) " The Family's Role in political Socialization" , The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 361 , p10.
( )Bornstein,M.H, Parenting Infants,in M.H Bornstein (ed),(2002) ,Handbook of parenting ,Vol 1, National Institute of Child Health and Human development ,New Jersey , p24
( )EX POST PAPER RAN YF&C ‘Vulnerable children who are brought up in an extremist environment’ 21-22 June, Stockholm (SE).
( )Sikkens ,Elga, ,op. cit.,p199-201
( )Bornstein,M.H, Parenting Infants,in M.H Bornstein,op. cit., p27.
( )Lutzing.S.,( Jun 2015), The other side of the story .A qualitative study of the biographies of extremists and terrorist, Bundeskriminalamt, ,p52
( ) Baumrind, Diana, Effects of Authoritative Parental on Child Behavior, Chaild Development, Vol 37, 4, 1966 ,p890
( )Pels,T.,de Ruyter,D.J.,( 2012), The influence of education and socialization on radicalization : An exploration of theoretical presumption and empirical ,Child & youth care forum ,Vol 41,3, ,p316
( ) Duriez, B., Soenens, B.,Vansteenkiste, M.,( 2008), The Intergenerational transmission of parental goal promotion , Journal of Research in Personality, 42 , ,p622.
( )Sikkens ,Elga, , Sieckelinck, Stijn, van, Marion ,Winter,Micha ,op. cit. ,p199
( )Diane Hughes,et. al. ’ (2006),Ethnic–Racial Socialization Practices: A Review of Research and Directions for Future Study, Developmental Psychology, , Vol. 42, No. 5,2006,P 749.
( ) Pels,T.,op. cit.,p316
( ) Lombardi ,Marco,et. al.,) 2015( ,Countering Radicalisation and Violent Extrmism Among Youth to Prevent Terrorism , NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division, p27 .
( ) Ted Cantle, Community Cohesion : Report of the Independent Review Team Home Office London. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239466847_Community_Cohesion_a_Report_of_the_Independent_Review_Team
( ) Lombardi ,Marco,op. cit , p29 .
( )Silke ,Andrew, Becoming a Terrorist, in Andrew Silke(ed.)( 2003) ,Terrorist, Victims and Society :Psychological perspectives on terrorism and its consequences, Chichester Wiley ,p44.
( ) ibide.
( )Silke, Andrew, (2008), " Holy Warriors –Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalization" , European Journal of Criminology , 5,1, ,p114.
( ) Christman, Kirs, (2012), Preventing Religious Radicalisation and Violent Extremism: A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence, Youth Justic Board for England and Wales, p24 .
( ) Wiktorowicz, Quintan. (2004.)‘Joining the Cause: Al-Muhajiroun and Radical Islam’, The Roots of Radical Islam, Department of International Studies, Rhodes College,.
( ) McCauley,C., Moskalenko,S.,( 2008), Mechanisms of political radicalization Pathways toward terrorism, Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 20, 3, p 418 .
( ) ibid .
( ) Kim, S. and Smith, R. (1993). Revenge and conflict escalation. Negotiation Journa l9, p40
( ) McCauley,C., Moskalenko,S.,Ibid , p 423 .
( ) Ibid , p 418 .
( )EX POST PAPER RAN YF&C ,op. cite.
( ) Pels,T.,de Ruyter,D.J.,op.cit.p319.
( ) Duits, Linda.( 2008), Multi-girl culture: An ethnography of doing identity. Amsterdam: Amsterdam UniversityPress, ,p113-114.
( ) Panjwani, Farid, Khimani ,Zulfigar,Misplaced Utopia, Education and extremism –the case of Pakistan, .in Farid Panjwani (ed)( 2018),Education and Extremisms Rethinking Liberal Pedagogies in the contemporary ,Routledge,London, p76
( )Sageman,Marc,.( 2008), Leaderless Jihad. Terror Networks in the Twenty-first century. Philadelphia: Penn Press, ,p85
( )Bergen, Peter L. and Peter L. Swati Pandey.( 2006), “The Madrassa Scapegoat.” The Washington Quarterly ,29. 2, p 118.
( ) Sageman,. Leaderless Jihad. Op. cite ,p82.
( )Gambetta, Diego, Hertog,Steffen,(2016) Engineers of Jihad -The Curious Connection between Violent Extremism and Education, Princeton University Press,p10
( ) Saigol, R., History, Social Studies, Civics and the Creation of Enemies in
A. Zaidi (ed.),(2003), Social Science in Pakistan in the 1990s Council of Social
Sciences, . Islamabad ,p168
( ) Panjwani, op. cite. ,p83.
( ) Bartlett, Jamie,et. al.,(2010), Michael, The Edge of Violence , Demos,London ,p 79.
( )Ysseldyk,et. al.,op. cit., p60.
( )Burch Brown , J. M., & Baker, W,.(2016), Religion and reducing prejudice. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 19. 6 ,p 786
( )Citing , Susilo Wibisono, Winnifred R Louis., Jolanda Jetten,(2019), A Multidimensional analysis of religious extremis, frontiers in psychology ,Vol 10 ,p2
( ) Ysseldyk, Op. cit.,p61-62.
( )Andrew Silke,.op. cit.,p102
( )Darren Sherkat,op. cit. ,p154. .
( ) Ysseldyk,Op. cite.,p64.
( ) Christman, Kirs,( 2012), Preventing Religious Radicalisation and Violen Extremism: A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence, Youth Justic Board for England and Wales, p29 .
( ) ibid. , p30 .
( ) See,Steven Pinker,(2002), The Blank Slate: The modern denial of human nature,
Putnan: Penguin,,p321, also see Albert Bandura et al.,(1996), ‘Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency’, Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology 71, no 2, .
( )See,Susilo , op. cite. ,p2
( ) Bartlett, op. cite. ,p 76.

( )See,Susilo Wibisono,op. cit.,p4.
قائمة المصادراللغة العربية
ب-المجلات
1- حميد فاضل، التطرف الضد النوعي للاعتدال ،مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم القانونية والسياسية ,” المجلد 8، عدد خاص ،2018 .
2- علي عباس مراد،التطرف صناعة انسانية ، مجلة قضايا سياسية،جامعة النهرين ، 37- 2014


List of Sources and reference:
A- Reference and sources
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iii. Gambetta ,Diego ,Hertog,(2016), Steffen, Engineers of Jihad -The Curious Connection between Violent Extremism and Education, Princeton University Press
iv. .Panjwani ,Farid (ed),(2018),Education and Extremisms Rethinking Liberal Pedagogies in the contemporary ,Routledge,London.
v. Jamie Bartlett. et. al.,( 2010),The Edge of Violence , Demos,London.
vi. Kirs Christman, (2012), Preventing Religious Radicalisation and Violen Extremism: A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence, Youth Justic Board for England and Wales.
vii. Duits ,Linda,(2008), Multi-girl culture: An ethnography of doing identity. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press
viii. .Bornstein,M.H (ed),(2002),Handbook of parenting ,Vol 1,National Institute of Child Health and Human development ,New Jersey.
ix. Sageman ,Marc,.(2008), Leaderless Jihad - Terror Networks in the Twenty-first century. Philadelphia Penn Press.
x. Lombardi Marco ,et. al.(2015),Countering Radicalisation and Violent Extrmism Among Youth to Prevent Terrorism, NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division
xi. Paul McLaughlin.(2012),Radicalism A Philosophical Study,Palgrave Macmillan .
xii. Peter Coleman and Andrea Bartoli,(2003), “Addressing Extremism,” International Center for Cooperation and Conflict Resolution, Columbia University New York
xiii. .Wiktorowicz ,Quintan .(2004) ‘Joining the Cause: Al-Muhajiroun and Radical Islam’, The Roots of Radical Islam, Department of International Studies, Rhodes Collegem.
xiv. Zaidi ,S. Akbar (ed.).(2003), Social Science in Pakistan in the 1990s, Council of Social Sciences,Islamabad.
xv. Steven Pinker,(2003), The Blank Slate: The modern denial of human nature, Penguin Books.
xvi. Albert Bandura et al.(1996) ,Mechanisms of moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71, no 2.
xvii. .Silke,Andrew,(Journey 2008),Holy Warriors: Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalization.” European Journal of Criminology 5, no. 1.
xviii. .Baumrind, Diana,(1966), Effects of Authoritative Parental on Child Behavior, Chaild Development, Vol 37, 4.
xix. .Bergen, Peter,et. al.(2006), The Madrassa Scapegoat, The Washington Quarterly, 29. 2.
xx. Burch Brown , J. M., & Baker, W.(2016), Religion and reducing prejudice. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 19. 6.
xxi. Christman, Kirs, (2012),Preventing Religious Radicalisation and Violent Extremism: A Systematic Review of the Research Evidence, Youth Justic Board for England and Wales
xxii. .Diane Hughes,et. al.Parents’(2006), Ethnic–Racial Socialization Practices: A Review of Research and Directions for Future Study, Developmental Psychology, vol. 42, no. 5.
xxiii. Duriez,B. (2008),The Intergenerational transmission of parental goal promotion , Journal of Research in Personality, 42. 3
xxiv. EX POST PAPER RAN YF&C ‘Vulnerable children who are brought up in an extremist environment’ 21-22 June, Stockholm
xxv. Davies, James,(Sep.1965), " The Family's Role in political Socialization" , The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,Vol. 361.
xxvi. Jan-Willem van Prooijen and André P. M. Krouwel,(2019) Psychological Features of Extreme Political Ideologies, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Sage Publications Inc. ,no. 2, Vol. 28.
xxvii. Lutzing.S.,(Jun 2015),The other side of the story .A qualitative study of the biographies of extremists and terrorist, Bundeskriminalamt.
xxviii. McCauley,C., Moskalenko,S.,(2008), Mechanisms of political radicalization Pathways toward terrorism, Terrorism and Political Violence, vol. 20, 3
xxix. Pels,T., Ruyter D.J,(2012), The influence of education and socialization on radicalization : An exploration of theoretical presumption and empirical ,Child & youth care forum ,Vol 41,3.
xxx. .Ysseldyk ,Renate,et. al.(2010),Religiosity as Identity: Toward an Understanding of Religion From a Social Identity Perspective, Personality and Social Psychology Review,14. 1.
xxxi. Sikkens ,Elga, ,et. al.,(2017) Influence on Radicalization and De-radicalization according to the lived experiences of former extremists and their families , Journal for deradicalization , 12
xxxii. .Susilo Wibisono, Winnifred R Louis.,(2019) Jolanda Jetten, A Multidimensional analysis of religious extremis, frontiers in psychology ,Vol 10.
منشور
2020-12-31